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How does X10 work?
Setting up the system
To control lights and equipment, the system uses commands that are sent via the mains (using X-10 signal). Every switch point uses a receiver to receive and execute the command. These receivers are called ‘modules’. The commands are sent via the mains by controllers. Because all modules get an address, they can be controlled independently.

1. Controllers
Controllers send out an address and a command via the mains, to control the modules. The system has controls that work as timers, PC interface, telephone responders, universal transmitters and alarm systems.
2. Wireless controllers
Wireless controllers transmit a signal to a central receiver, which transforms the signals to the X-10 signal for the mains. There are wireless receivers which work as remote controls, wireless switches, sensors, etc. As a central receiver a TM13 transceiver or the switchboard of the Marmitek alarm system can be used.
3. Modules
Modules control lights and equipment. There are 4 different types: plug-in modules, built-in switches, micro modules and modules for DIN rail assembly. The modules receive the commands from the controllers via the mains.

Addresses
By using two code dials, up to 256 different addresses can be set up. These are subdivided into a so-called HouseCode (A-P) and a UnitCode (1-16). The HouseCode can also be set on the controllers, which means the controllers and modules form part of the same system. The X-10 system uses standard commands, which control all units with the same HouseCode at the same time (e.g. All lights on, All off, etc.).

Some examples:
1. Timer controlled and manual
In the first example the outdoor lights can be controlled both manually and on pre-programmed times from the bedroom. To control lights or appliances, you always need a controller. Because the modules are also timer-controlled, the best choice here is the MT10E Mini Timer. This controller gives you the option to use the keys to manually control modules.
The Mini Timer sends the commands via the mains to the Lamp Module LM12. This is a module which can receive the X-10 signals. After receipt the Lamp Module decodes the message (and checks the address) and executes the command. You can control all lights that are connected to the Lamp Module from your bedroom. The following functions are available: On, Off, Dim, All lights on and All units off. By connecting an extra module to the mains, a second lamp or appliance can be controlled.
2. By remote control
In the following example the lights and an appliance are controlled via a remote control. The remote control can be used in any room in the house, but also in the garden. In this example the lights in the living room, the water pump in the pond and an electric blanket are controlled. With the remote control you can also control audio and video equipment. Because we are using a transmitter (universal remote control 8in1), we need a controller to transform the signals of the transmitter into X-10 signals. The best choice here is the TM13 Transceiver. This transceiver is both a controller and a module: a two-way device module is built into the transceiver. The electric blanket is connected to the transceiver socket. The lights in the living room are switched on and off with a standard built-in switch. By replacing this switch by the LW11 Lamp Module, the lights can be both switched and dimmed remotely and manually. To control the water pump, we use the AD10 DIN rail switch. This switch can be controlled via the mains, which means it can be activated with the remote control combined with the TM13 Transceiver Module. You can also connect a standard switch to the AD10, so that the module can also be controlled manually. Because all signals travel trough floors and ceilings, the remote control can be used anywhere in the house.

3. Complete automation with your PC and remote control
With the CM11 Computer Interface you can pre-program action sets. These actions will be executed after a command has been received from a controller. Actions can be started by pressing a button on e.g. the remote control (in combination with e.g. a transceiver that sends the command via the mains to the computer interface). The information is saved in the interface after programming, which means that the PC can be turned off. You can pre-program separate atmospheric light schemes for different situations. You can also program actions for ‘office presentations’, ‘at home’, ‘leaving the building’, ‘absence’, ‘relaxation’, etc. With one press of a button on your remote control or wireless switch, all equipment and lights can be activated. Because you can set a time delay, it is also possible to switch off the equipment and/or lights an hour later and switch on the security lighting. The PC interface also gives you the option to pre-program several actions, to simulate presence in a more realistic manner.
The system can even take sunset/sunrise into account. All modules connected to the mains can be activated with the remote control, manually or via the PC screen. The modules can be controlled separately with the remote control, but it is also possible to start the actions that are saved in the PC interface with the same remote. In case of absence the PC interface makes it look as if you are at home.
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